"Already the pavement was drying; a balmy and fresh breeze stirred the air, purified by lightening. I felt the west behind me, where spread a sky like opal; azure immingled with crimson. The enlarged sun, glorious in Tyrian tints, dipped his brim already. Stepping, as i was, eastward, i faced a vast bank of clouds, but also i had before me the arch of an evening rainbow - a perfect rainbow, high, wide, vivid. I looked long; my eye drank in the scene, and i suppose my brain must have absorbed it; for that night, after lying awake in pleasant fever a long time, watching the silent sheet-lightening, which still played among he retreating clouds, and flashed silvery over the stars, i at last fell asleep; and then in a dream were reproduced the setting sun, the bank of clouds, the mighty rainbow."
The Professor written in 1845/ 6 but not published until 1857 after Charlotte's death.
I've nearly finished reading The Professor, and if i pull myself together i should finish it in the next day or two. It's not brimming with weather references, but there are a couple of beautiful descriptions - above being a lovely example.